Outline for BCHE 4510/6510



1. History of Bioprocessing

2. Review of Biology

    A. Cell Types
      1. Viruses
      2. Procaryotes
        a. Eubacteria
        b. Archaebacteria
      3. Eucaryotes
        a. Fungi
          1) Yeasts
          2) Molds
        b. Algae
        c. Protozoa
        d. Animal and Plant Cells
    B. Cell Construction
      1. Proteins
      2. Amino Acids
      3. Protein Structure
      4. Carbohydrates
        a. Monosaccharides
        b. Disaccharides
        c. Polysaccharides
      5. DNA
    C. Cell Nutritional Requirements
      1. Energy
      2. Carbon
      3. Nitrogen
      4. Phosphorus
      5. Sulfur
      6. Micronutrients
        a. Trace Elements
        b. Vitamins

3. Enzyme and Enzyme Kinetics

    A. Introduction
    B. Enzyme Names
      1. Oxidoreductases
      2. Transferases
      3. Hydrolases
      4. Lyases
      5. Isomerases
      6. Ligases
    C. Quantification of Enzymes
    D. Models for Enzyme Kinetics
      1. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment
      2. Mathematical Representation of Enzyme Kinetics
        a. First Order Kinetics - "One Step" Reaction
        b. Kinetics with Enzyme-Substrate Complex
          1) Equilibrium Solution
          2) Quasi-Steady State Solution
          3) Computer Solution
      3. Determination of Michaelis-Menten Parameters
        a. Hanes-Woolf Plot
        b. Lineweaver-Burke Plot
        c. Eadie-Hofstee Plot
        d. Non-Linear Curve Fit
    E. Molecular Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis
      1. Chymotrypsin
      2. Carboxylation with biotin
      3. Site-Directed Mutagenesis
    F. Inhibition of Enzyme Catalysis
      1. Irreversible Inhibitors
      2. Competitive Inhibition
      3. Noncompetitive Inhibition
        a. "Pure" Noncompetitive
        b. "Mixed" Noncompetitive
      4. Uncompetitive Inhibition
      5. Substrate Inhibition
    G. Other Enzyme Models
      1. Compulsory Order
      2. Random Order
      3. Ping-Pong Model
    H. pH and Temperature Effects
      1. pH
      2. Temperature

INTERLUDE - Interphase Mass Transfer

    I. Immobilization of Enzymes
      1. Motivation
      2. External Mass Transfer Effects
        a. General Derivation
        b. Mass Transfer-Limited Regime
        c. Reaction-Limited Regime
        d. External Effectiveness Factor
      3. Internal Mass Transfer Effects
        a. General Derivation
        b. Michaelis-Menten Kinetics
        c. First Order Kinetics
      4. Simultaneous External & Internal Mass Transfer Resistance

4. Biochemistry Basics (extremely briefly)

    A. Introduction
    B. Pathways
      1. Glycolysis
      2. Tricarboxylic acid cycle
      3. Pentose Phosphate Pathway
      4. Anaplerotic Pathways
      5. Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. Summary of principal carbon flow
      7. Anaerobic Metabolism
      8. Calvin-Benson Cycle
    C. Calculation of Intermediates Used

5. Cell Growth

    A. Specific Growth Rate
    B. Measurement of Cell Concentration
      1. Counting
        a. Microscopic Counting
        b. Plate Counts
        c. Particle Counters
      2. Mass Measurements
        a. Dry Weight
        b. Packed Cell Volume
        c. Optical Density
        d. DNA Measurement
      3. Cellular Activity Measurements
        a. ATP Measurement
        b. NADH Measurement
    C. Batch Growth Phases
      1. Lag Phase
      2. Exponential Growth Phase
      3. Stationary Phase
    D. Parameters Used to Describe Microbial Growth Kinetics
      1. Maintenance
      2. Cell Mass
      3. Products
        a. Growth Associated
        b. Non-Growth Associated
        c. Mixed Growth Associated
      4. Summary
    E. Description of Specific Growth Rate
      1. Limiting Substrate Concentration
      2. Inhibitors
        a. Substrate Inhibition
        b. Product Inhibition
        c. Toxic Inhibition
      3. Temperature
        a. Ratkowsky Equation
        b. Arrhenius Equations
        c. Other Effects
      4. pH
      5. Logistic Equation (Carrying Capacity)
    F. Modeling of Batch Growth - Unstructured Models
    G. Oxygen
      1. Oxygen Uptake Rate
      2. Turning Off Oxygen Supply
      3. Other Oxygen Sinks
      4. Oxygen Transfer Rate
      5. Kinetics of Specific Oxygen Consumption
      6. Effect of Oxygen Uptake on Batch Kinetics
      7. Measurement of kLa and OUR
        a. Sulfite Oxidation
        b. Static gassing Out
        c. Dynamic gassing Out
        d. Direct Oxygen Measurement
      8. Factors Affecting OTR (KLa)
        a. Air Flow Rate
        b. Agitation
        c. Viscosity
        d. Air Enrichment
        e. Oxygen Carriers
    H. Heat Generation
    I. Continuous and Fed-Batch Culture
      1. General Material Balances
      2. Simplifications
        a. Water
        b. Well-Mixed
        c. No Product or Cells In Feed
        d. Insignificant Cell Death
      3. Modes of Operation
        a. Chemostat
          1) Cells
          2) Substrate
          3) Product
          4) Monod Model
          5) Relative Importance of Maintenance
          6) Substrate Concentration in Bioreactor
          7) Volumetric vs. Specific Rates
          8) Why Conduct Chemostat?
          9) Calculations
          10) Comments
        b. Fed-Batch
          1) Constant Growth Rate